Skill Level: Preschool Through Grade 2 (Reading and Writing)

Reading and Writing Instruction

Areas of instruction vary depending on individual instructional needs and the age of each student.


Alphabet:  Auditory/Visual Processing (name, sound, formation of lowercase and uppercase letters; rhyming words)

Kindergarten through Grade 2                                                                                                                                                                              

Short Vowels

Sound-spelling relationships, written letters

Short vowels are taught in the order a, i, o, u, e.

Read simple stories with 3-letter words having different vowel sounds in one word.   Write and spell 2-3 letter words with each of the five vowels.

Short vowel words with consonant blends, suffixes, and digraphs.  A consonant digraph is 2 written letters that make 1 sound (shark, lock, cheese, feather, sang).


  • a-apple
  • -ck sock
  • ​sh ship
  • i-igloo
  • th thimble
  • th there
  • ch chair
  • -tch catch
  • ing ring
  • ang bang
  • ink sink
  • ank bank
  • o- octopus
  • ong song
  • u- umbrella
  • ung hung
  • onk honk
  • unk junk
  • e- elephant
  • wh wheel
  • consonant blends
  • quotations, punctuation, possessives, contractions
  • compound words, suffixes, closed-syllable words

Long Vowels

Vowel-consonant-e pattern, with e-e last; moving into the next pattern of sounds: take the consonant out of e-e to make ee (same sound).  Same with other long vowel sounds: ie, oe, ue.

The pattern ee often ends a word, but is more often followed by a consonant while the other vowel combinations always come at the end of words.  This provides a good strategy for spelling. 

The sounds ai and ay function in the same way.  When students see that ai is always followed by a consonant, and ay is at the end of a word or syllable, they gain additional spelling strategies.  

Instruction includes y in the middle of words, having the long e or i sound ( anything, crying).  Likewise, y at the end of words has the long e or i sound (any, cry).  Silent at the end of words is also taught.

  • a-e rake
  • i-e pin
  • kn knife
  • o-e bone
  • ph phon
  • u-e cube
  • u-e flute
  • e-e Pete
  • ee feet
  • ie tie
  • oe hoe
  • ue barbecue
  • ea dream
  • oa boat
  • ai- rain
  • ay hay
  • distinguish short from long vowels, silent e rule, contractions ('re, 'll)

Vowels Controlled by “r” and “l” 

R-controlled vowels: farmer, fur, nurse, dollar, and swimmer.  L-controlled vowels: tall, still, well.  The phonogram ar is introduced (one of the few sounds in English for which there is only one spelling).  There are two ways to spell the or sound.  Then come the other vowels and combinations to make the common sound er.   Of all of these, er is the most important.  The list of one-syllable words is short, but er comes at the end of many multi-syllable words. 

  • ar star
  • or corn
  • (w) ar warm
  • er fern
  • ir girl
  • ur burn
  • ear- earth
  • (w)or- worm
  • a(l) walk
  • g (e,i, y) angel
  • -dle candle
  • y fly
  • y baby
  • silent (candle)
  • igh
  • root words, suffixes, schwa sound, adjectives

More Vowel Pairs

These phonograms have the same sound: ow - ou,  ew - eu, aw - au.  The ones with u never occur at the end of words (ou, eu, au).  This is another strategy for spelling.

Diphthongs are taught.  This is 1 vowel sound formed by a combination of 2 vowels (point, toy, rain, hay, sauce, moon).  The oi is always followed by a consonant, and oy comes at the end of a word or syllable.

  • oo raccoons
  • oo cook
  • ow show
  • ou mouse
  • ew new
  • aw awesome
  • au haunted
  • oi noisy
  • oy boy
  • ea weather
  • ey money
  • ie piece
  • ou soup

Reading Comprehension

  • Make Connections:  Use prior knowledge from life experiences or other books to relate information from one story to another
  • Make Predictions:  Use information from what is read in a story and personal experiences to guess what might happen next   
  • Use context clues to comprehend new vocabulary words                                                                                               
  • Identify character names and attributes, sequence of events 
  • Recall  the main idea and specific details                                                                                                                                 
  • Draw conclusions                                                                                                                                                     
  • Fluency:  Read with automaticity, speed, no omissions or substitutions, and self-correction.


Writing Instruction

Sentence Construction

Nouns, Pronouns, Articles, Prepositions


Simple Verb Tenses (present, past, future)

Sentence Dictation

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